Introduction

Controlling motion is a primary requirement when it comes to building a physical IoT system. We learn how to read values from analog to digital converters while controlling stepper actions to build your internet controlled machines.

What will we learn

  • Basics of what an Analog to Digital and vice versa conversion means.

  • Interaction with hardware such as reading digital input and output.

  • Controlling the output of the actuators and getting feedback.

The project consists of an emulated Raspberry Pi connected to digital input/output and a temperature/humidity sensor.

Basics of programming motion

IoT is the system of system, which allows connecting numbers of sensors, actuators, and detectors which all are uniquely addressable and controllable over the network protocols. All the controllable devices in a system fall under the category of actuators.

What is an actuator

An Actuator can be defined as a device that converts energy (in terms of robotics, that energy tends to be electrical) into physical motion. For instance, Stepper Motor or Hydraulic system.

We have a wide family of controllable devices (Actuators). The most commonly used actuators in applications these days are stepper motor, servo motor, DC motors, and AC motors. Internet of Things helps us achieve the next industrial boom by allowing us to control these devices remotely and intelligently. The major difference between the Internet of Things and the traditional controller is that the new generation of controllers is smart and connected. Connectivity between the cloud and machines will enable us to combine the data, analyze the events, improve the action, and manipulate objects in the real world. Choosing a perfect motor for mechanical application is always an important task.

The basics: Analog to Digital Converter

An Analog to digital converter devices converts an analog value such as voltage to a digital output (regarding binary digit). A2D converters are essential components for interacting with the physical world and digital microprocessor. While most of the event in the real world always happens in an analog domain such as displacement, acceleration, fall, the microprocessor could only understand digital values in binary format. A2D converters help bridge this gap.

The basics: Digital to Analog Converter

This is just the reverse of what an A2D converter is, i.e. converting digital values to their physical counterpart. For example, the motion of a stepper motor or a voltage-controlled relay is the classic example of a D2A converter.

In this project, we focus on 3 elements of robotics :

  • Analog to digital converter (A2D I2C sensor)

  • Digital to Analog conversion (stepper motor)

  • Digital Input / Output using GPIO.